Post

Have questions? Contact us at schoolfunding@edtrustny.org.

Unless otherwise noted, all data findings are based on The Education Trust–New York’s analysis of publicly available school-level funding data provided by school districts to the New York State Division of the Budget and available at: https://www.budget.ny.gov/schoolFunding/sft-status.html.

General education per student funding calculations are based on the projected K-12 enrollment for the 2018-19 school year included in district funding submissions. Special education per student funding calculations are based on the projected K-12 enrollment of students with disabilities for the 2018-19 school year included in district funding submissions. Where a school projects no enrollment of students with disabilities, but includes special education expenditures, the amount of per student funding for special education is reported as zero dollars. Schools with no projected enrollment of students with disabilities are excluded from district average calculations. Pre-K per student funding calculations are based on projected Pre-K enrollment for the 2018-19 school year included in district funding submissions. All other per student funding calculations are based on PK-12 enrollment for the 2018-19 school year included in district funding submissions.

For our analysis, elementary/middle schools are defined as those schools with a grade organization code of “1,” “2,” or “3” in the New York State Education Department (NYSED) school directory and/or schools fitting that description based on district submissions on the lowest and highest grades offered at the school. High schools are defined as those schools with a grade organization code of “4,” “5,” or “6” in the NYSED school directory and/or schools fitting that description based on district submissions on lowest and highest grades offered.

School View:

In districts with less than 10 elementary/middle schools, district averages of per student funding are based on all schools in the district, regardless of elementary/middle school or high school designation. In schools with at least 10 elementary/middle schools, district averages of per student funding are based only on comparable schools (i.e., elementary/middle schools or high schools) and are labeled as such.

School-level student shares by race/ethnicity are based on PK-12 enrollment of students and are derived from the 2017-18 NYSED Public School Enrollment preliminary school level data available at: http://www.p12.nysed.gov/irs/statistics/enroll-n-staff/home.html.

The school-level shares of low-income students, English language learners, and students with disabilities for New York City Department of Education (NYCDOE) schools are based on PK-12 enrollment and are derived from the 2017-18 NYCDOE Demographic Snapshot available at: https://infohub.nyced.org/reports-and-policies/citywide-information-and-data/information-and-data-overview. District-level averages of low-income students, English language learners, and students with disabilities for NYCDOE schools are based on school level aggregates for all elementary/middle schools or high schools in NYCDOE.

D75 schools were excluded from both student demographic and per student funding district averages in NYCDOE calculations.

The school-level shares of low-income students, English language learners, and students with disabilities for schools outside of NYCDOE are based on PK-12 enrollment and are derived from the 2017-18 NYSED Public School Enrollment preliminary school level data available at: http://www.p12.nysed.gov/irs/statistics/enroll-n-staff/home.html. In districts with less than 10 elementary/middle schools, district averages of student demographics are based on PK-12 enrollment and are derived from the 2017-18 NYSED Public School Enrollment preliminary district level data available at: http://www.p12.nysed.gov/irs/statistics/enroll-n-staff/home.html. In districts with more than 10 elementary/middle schools, district averages are based on school-level aggregates for all elementary/middle schools or high schools in the district. Any school with missing and/or suppressed data for a specific group of students was excluded from district average calculations for that group of students.

In districts with fewer than 10 elementary/middle and/or high schools, a school was designated as having “fewer” or “more” low-income students, students with disabilities, and/or English language learners if the share of those groups in the school were one standard deviation below or above the district average, otherwise schools were designated as having “about the same share of” that student group. Similarly, in districts with fewer than 10 elementary/middle schools and/or high schools, a school was designated as being “smaller than” or “larger than” a typical school if the PK-12 enrollment was one standard deviation below or above the district average; otherwise schools were designated as being “about the same size as” a typical school in the district.

For ease of interpretation, both the standard deviation and the difference between district and school averages were rounded to the nearest percentage point. In addition, any school (or district) with missing and/or suppressed data for a specific group of students was excluded from these comparisons.

In districts with at least 10 elementary/middle schools and at least 10 high schools, a school was designated as having “fewer” or “more” low-income students, students with disabilities, and/or English language learners if the school was in the bottom or top quartile for the percent of students in that group among all comparable schools within the district; otherwise schools were designated as having “about the same share of” that student group. Similarly, in districts with at least 10 elementary/middle schools and at least 10 high schools, a school was designated as being “smaller than” or “larger than” a typical school if the PK-12 enrollment of that school was in the bottom or top quartile of enrollment among all comparable schools within the district; otherwise schools were designated as being “about the same size as” a typical school in the district.

Any school with missing data was excluded from these comparisons. Schools with suppressed data for a specific student group were considered on a case-by-case basis and would be included in the bottom quartile if it could be inferred that the largest number of suppressed students (n = 4) would firmly place the school in the bottom quartile. However, if that inference could not be made, the school was excluded from the analysis.

District View:

The district-level highest/lowest need school analysis is limited to mid/large sized districts that meet one of two sets of criteria.

First, a school district is included if they have at least 10 elementary/middle schools and/or at least 10 high schools. In these circumstances, a school is designated as “lowest need” or “highest need” if the share of low-income students, students with disabilities, and/or English language learners is in the bottom or top quartile for the percent of students in that group among all comparable schools within the district. In addition, a school is designated as being “lowest need” in our “combined overall need” measure if the school is designated as “lowest need” (bottom quartile) in at least two student group categories and “highest need” if the school is designated as “highest need” (top quartile) in at least two student group categories.

A narrower analysis is conducted if a district does not meet the above criteria but has at least 3 elementary/middle schools serving the same grade span and at least a 10 percentage point gap in the weighted average of low-income students in at least 2 of those schools. In these circumstances, the analysis is limited to a comparison of per student expenditures between the schools with the lowest shares of low-income students (“lowest need”) and those with the highest shares of low-income students (“highest need”). Under either criteria, per student funding averages are the weighted averages for “highest” or “lowest” need schools. Comparison of special education expenditures are not made when a district includes a school that projects no enrollment of students with disabilities, but does project special education expenditures.

The analysis excludes certain designated specialized schools, such as District 75 in NYCDOE. Any school with missing data is also excluded from this analysis. Schools with suppressed data for a specific student group were considered on a case-by-case basis and would be included in the bottom quartile if it could be inferred that the largest number of suppressed students (n = 4) would firmly place the school in the bottom quartile. However, if that inference could not be made, the school was excluded from the analysis. All quartiles are unweighted and the top and bottom quartiles can be uneven due to missing data and/or suppression.

Compare Schools View:

In this view, a school was designated as being “lowest need” or “highest need” if the share of low-income students, students with disabilities, and/or English language learners was in the bottom or top quartile for at least two student group categories among all comparable schools that will submit funding data.

The analysis excludes certain designated specialized schools, such as District 75 in NYCDOE. Any school with missing data were also excluded from this analysis. Schools with suppressed data for a specific student group were considered on a case-by-case basis and would be included in the bottom quartile if it could be inferred that the largest number of suppressed students (n = 4) would firmly place the school in the bottom quartile. However, if that inference could not be made, the school was excluded from the analysis. All quartiles are unweighted and the top and bottom quartiles can be uneven due to missing data and/or suppression.

Student 3-8 grade ELA/math proficiency data are from the 2016-17 Report Card Database available at: https://data.nysed.gov/downloads.php. Graduation rate data are from the 2016-17 Graduation Rate Database available at: https://data.nysed.gov/downloads.php.

Map the Data:

School level geolocation data and district shapefiles are from New York State GIS data files available at: http://gis.ny.gov/gisdata/inventories/details.cfm?DSID=927.