To and Through Data Methodology

Unless otherwise noted, all data findings in this report are based on unpublished anonymized student-level data for 2012-13 and 2013-14 first-time Tuition Assistance Program (TAP) recipients age 19 or younger as of July 1 for each academic year, who reported either never attending college or attending some college (collectively referred to as TAP recipients) provided by the New York State Higher Education Services Corporation (HESC) in coordination with the National Student Clearinghouse (NSC).

DATA SOURCES AND CALCULATIONS

The de-identified student-level data from HESC included:

  • Pell eligibility; and
  • National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) high school code and name.

Matched student-level NSC data included:

  • Institutional enrollment—including, but not limited to, institutional sector, enrollment begin and end date; and
  • Graduation/certificate completion—including, but not limited to, institutional sector, date of graduation/certification, and degree/credential earned.

School- and district-level data on the share of students who are low-income in 2011-12 and 2012-13 are from New York State Education Department’s (NYSED) publicly available Enrollment Data Archive.

School- and district-level data on the share of students who are low-income for combined 2011-12 and 2012-13 years is based on the weighted average of students who are low-income for both years. If data on students who are low-income is missing for either year, the share of students who are low-income in 2011-12 and 2012-13 is not calculated.

School-level data on total graduates for the 2011-12 and 2012-13 years are from NYSED’s publicly available Report Card Databases. School-level data on total graduates for the combined 2011-12 and 2012-13 years reflect the aggregate sum for each year. District- and statewide-level data reflect the aggregate sum of all schools in the district/state.

School-level geolocation data are from New York State GIS data files.

Estimated 2012 and 2013 college outcomes:

In our analysis, “high school graduates” are 2012-13 and 2013-14 first-time TAP recipients age 19 or younger as of July 1 of the respective academic year, who reported either never attending college or attending some college, whose HESC-provided NCES high school code and/or name were successfully matched to a NYSED public school Basic Education Data System (BEDS) code, and who enrolled in a higher education institution in the following fall.

High school graduates who enroll later than fall, attend college out-of-state, attend college in New York without receiving TAP grants, enter the military, or directly enter the workforce are not captured in the data set. High school graduates who were not able to be matched to a New York high school because of data limitations are not captured in the data set.

“Return for spring” is based on the number of TAP recipients that were matched to a New York State public high school based on their NCES high school code or name, enrolled in a higher education institution in fall of 2012 or 2013, and returned for the following spring.

“Return for second year” is based on the number of TAP recipients that were matched to a New York State public high school based on their NCES high school code or name, enrolled in a higher education institution in the fall 2012 or 2013, and returned the following fall.

“Graduate on-time” is defined depending on the type of degree(s)/certification(s) earned, as follows: within two years of initial enrollment for Associate Degrees/certifications, within four years of initial enrollment for Bachelor’s Degrees, and within six years for concurrent Bachelor’s/Master’s degrees, Master’s degrees, a Ph.D, or law degree. A student earning multiple degrees is counted as an on-time graduate if they earned any of their degrees by meeting the on-time definition.

“Graduate by December 2018” is based on degree/certification completion by December 2018.

Similar schools and high performers:

The college outcomes for “similar schools” reflect the weighted average of public high schools within five groupings based on the percent of students who are low-income: 0% to 20%, more than 20% to 40%, more than 40% to 60%, more than 60% to 80%, and more than 80%.

The percent of students who are low-income at each public high school was calculated using NYSED’s school-level data on the total enrollment of “economically disadvantaged” students and total school-wide enrollment. Schools not meeting the minimum n-size threshold of at least 10 students enrolling in a higher education institution or whose share of students who are low-income could not be calculated were excluded from the analysis.

The college outcomes for “high performers” is based on the weighted average of all schools meeting the minimum n-size threshold of at least 10 students enrolling in a higher education institution that are in the top 10% for on-time college graduation.

DATA EXCLUSIONS

For the purposes of this analysis, our universe of schools was any New York State public school that reported graduates for the 2011-12 or 2012-13 school year according to the NYSED’s Report Card Database and/or public schools that were included in HESC’s TAP recipient data and were successfully matched to a NYSED BEDS code based on NCES name and/or code.

For the 2011-12 analysis, the total public school universe was 1,315 schools, including the 1,297 schools found in the NYSED Report Card Database and 18 additional schools that were matched to a NYSED BEDS code. Of those 1,315 schools, 1,176 (89%) were included in our analysis. The following schools were excluded from the analysis:

  • 13 Special Act schools;
  • 1 District 75 school; and
  • 125 schools whose student-level TAP recipient data could not be successfully matched to the school.

Additionally, our initial universe was 68,618 first-time TAP recipients age 19 or younger as of July 1, 2012, who reported either never attending college or attending some college and who enrolled in a higher education institution in the fall. Of those 68,618 TAP recipients, 59,796 (87%) were successfully matched to a New York State public high school based on their NCES school code/name and were included in our analysis. At least 4,976 TAP recipients (7%) were associated with a non-public high school and excluded from the analysis.

For the 2012-13 analysis, the total public school universe was 1,222 schools, including the 1,201 schools found in the NYSED Report Card Database and 21 additional schools that were matched to a NYSED BEDS code. Of those 1,222 schools, 1,186 (97%) were included in our analysis. The following schools were excluded from the analysis:

  • 9 Special Act schools;
  • 5 District 75 schools; and
  • 23 schools whose student-level TAP recipient data could not be successfully matched to the school.

Additionally, our initial universe was 68,750 first-time TAP recipients age 19 or younger as of July 1, 2013, who reported either never attending college or attending some college and who enrolled in a higher education institution in the fall. Of those 68,750 TAP recipients, 58,492 (85%) were successfully matched to a New York State public high school based on their NCES school code/name and were included in our analysis. At least 4,807 TAP recipients (7%) were associated with a non-public high school and excluded from the analysis.

For the combined 2012 and 2013 analysis, the total public school universe was 1,331 schools, including the 1,312 schools found in the NYSED Report Card Database and 19 additional schools that were matched to a NYSED BEDS code. Of those 1,331 schools, 1,203 (90%) were included in our analysis. The following schools were excluded from the analysis:

  • 13 Special Act schools;
  • District 75 school; and
  • 110 schools whose student-level TAP recipient data could not be successfully matched to the school.

For the combined 2012 and 2013 analysis, our initial universe was 137,368 first-time TAP recipients age 19 or younger as of July 1 of the respective academic year, who reported either never attending college or attending some college and who enrolled in a higher education institution in the fall. Of those 137,368 TAP recipients, 118,288 (86%) were successfully matched to a New York State public high school based on their NCES school code/name and were included in our analysis. At least 9,783 TAP recipients

(7%) were associated with a non-public high school and excluded from the analysis.

Finally, schools were excluded from the data tool for the following reasons:

  • The school failed to meet the n-size threshold of at least 10 graduates enrolling in a higher education institution;
  • The school was missing data on total graduates as reported by NYSED; or
  • The school has closed since the 2011-12 or 2012-13 academic year.

Data for these schools are included in district and statewide aggregates.